Rhetorical Pronouns & Naming

I created the following reading for advanced rhetoric classes. It addresses many dimensions of small, seemingly insignificant words like pronouns, including the ways these terms embody ethos, agency, power, and gender identity.

At the end, it also examines the conventions of using pronouns, particularly "I," in several disciplines.


Pronouns Defined

Pronouns. Subject Pronouns include I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They. Object Pronouns include: me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them. Possessive Adjectives include: my,you, his, her, its, our, your, their. Possessive pronouns include: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs.Simple Definition: A word that stands in place of a noun

Oxford English Dictionary: a word that can function by itself as a noun phrase and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g., I, you) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g., she, it, this).

These simple definitions and list can lead to more complex rhetorical questions like:
  • Why would an author choose a pronoun to stand in place for a noun?
  • How are specific pronouns chosen?
  • Who is participating in the discourse?
  • What identities do pronouns name?

Pronouns Convey Ethos & Agency


Pronouns are keys to ethos (more on ethos in my appeals lesson). Anytime an author uses a first person pronoun (I, we, etc.) they draw attention to their position and persona. Using "I," a person claims an individual stance, while "we" groups together others. This inclusive gesture can form community, as in the common example "We the people." It can also make dissenters resistant, as when women and people of color have suggested that "we the people" has historically applied only to white men. Consider common responses such as "What we?" or "Who do you mean we?" These replies suggest that the speaker has overstepped their bounds in describing the views of others.

Sometimes pronouns purposefully distance others to construct the speaker's ethos as different. These moves might be politically or racially motivated, as when one refers to another group of people as "them" or "those people." Here the pronoun itself becomes a type of stereotype. Disidentifying with these others then tells the audience about the values of the speaker.

Removing "I" can hide responsibility, as in "the test kicked my ass," which removes agency from the student who performed poorly to blame the test.

Other times "I" is present, but the order of words still diverts attention from the human actor. Consider Ted Kennedy's "Address to the People of Massachusetts on Chappaquiddick" after he drove a car off a bridge, leading to the death of Mary Jo Kopechne. He describes the scene:
"Little over one mile away, the car that I was driving on an unlit road went off a narrow bridge which had no guard rails and was built on a left angle to the road." 

He recognizes he was driving the car--to do otherwise could look evasive--but still he does not say "I drove a car off a bridge." Rather he shifts agency to the car along with the light and bridge, each given significant adjectives: "unlit," "narrow," etc.

Even the headline at right uses possession ("Kennedy Car") but not the control implied in subject-verb. Descriptions of the lesser known Kopechne as "Blonde" and "Jersey Girl," stand-ins for her actual name, could make for fruitful class discussions as well.


Pronouns Convey Power


An obvious way that pronouns convey power is through possession and command. Using "my" is a claim to ownership: "my children," "our car." And commands often use the implied you. "Go home;" "Take out the trash."

Getting to chose which pronouns to use is itself a powerful position.  Diann Baecker analyzes the pronouns used in university syllabi, for example. She finds that "you" is the most prominent, but she also suggests instructors tend to mask power by using "we." She cites research by Mühlhäusler and Harré that states, “We spreads the responsibility . . . We is a rhetorical device that allows the speaker(s) to distance themselves from whatever is being said, thus making it appear more palatable because it appears to come from the group as a whole rather than a particular individual” (Baecker 59).

She continues: "The pronoun we is an example of an ambiguous marker of power, which can be used both to indicate solidarity or community and as a means to coerce the audience into behavior that benefits the speaker. . . .there are specific rules for determining who can use the royal we and who must remain with the solitary I.” (Baecker 59).

When you use pronouns for yourself, they can even convey something about your mental state and your level of power. In "Your Use of Pronouns Reveals Your Personality," James Pennebaker describes research that examines "I" as a sign of self-focus. His findings show that "Depressed people use the word “I” much more often than emotionally stable people. People who are lower in status use “I” much more frequently."


Pronouns Convey Gender Identity


Because there is power in assigning and accepting particular pronouns, it should come as no surprise that they affect the identities they name. Pronouns convey deep assumptions about gender in English. Using "he" as a default pronoun to suggest either gender can alienate many individuals.

Considering "he" as a default can lead to wrong conclusions too. When students analyze texts written by women, for example, many start out using "he," assuming the author is a man without checking. The pronoun usage here conveys cultural assumptions about who we believe an author to be. As a remedy, students can follow the guidelines for gender-fair language. This website on making language gender neutral also provides useful examples.


Naming and pronoun usage, like all language, does not remain static. According to Deborah D. Rogers at the University of Main, "'they' has arrived at the party" because younger people increasingly use "the gender-neutral plural pronoun 'they' and its inflected forms, 'them', 'their', 'themselves' (and 'themself'!), to refer to one person." Facebook even allows users to create custom gender settings and to use they/them as pronouns for one's profile. In addition, new pronouns, such as ze and zir have been created by transgender activists as gender neutral alternatives.



Pronouns in the Disciplines


Academic disciplines have certain conventions for using (or not using) pronouns. Scientists for example avoid "I," instead using passive voice to elide the human actor. In this way, they shift focus from the individual experimenter and onto the scientific process.  By implying that any one who has done what's been done would achieve the same results, scientists reinforce the crucial ideology of their discipline: replicable results. So, even without an "I" statement they embed values and ethos.

Sometimes speakers more generally remove "I" to make opinions seem facts. "Abortion is evil." or "The death penalty is evil." These statements are judgments, and hotly contested ones, but by removing "I believe" from the beginning they seem to carry more weight than just one person's opinion.

In another field, one technical writing textbook recommends the You-Centered Pronoun Style because it creates "an audience centered-tone" that "foregrounds the reader's needs, preferences, and benefits." They continue: "Because the reader’s interest or benefit is stressed, the writer is more likely to help the reader understand information or act on a request." They focus on the genres of memos and manuals, which need to reach the reader in a particular way that will lead to action. These differing preferences for pronouns demonstrate that purpose in writing and analyzing pronouns is key.


Can I Use "I" in Writing?


Because "I" is often limited in several academic genres, student writers are often surprised to hear that they are "allowed" to use "I" in their papers. Many high-school teachers, in fact, forbid the word. I explain to students that like many skills, they will be deepening their writing practices in college. High-school teachers had good reasons to discourage first-person, but college writers must learn to use it effectively.

Why high-school teachers discourage first-person:

  1. Young writers often use "I" too frequently and repetitively.

  2. Using "I" can limit the scope of a claim: saying "I believe" might lead a student to think they don't need evidence for the claim because they have only stated a personal belief. 

  3. Student writers need to learn to consider their audience, to think outside themselves. Statements like "I believe" draw focus from the audience to place it on the author.


Why college students need to learn how to use first-person effectively:

  1. There is always an "I" in writing. In other words, texts always come from a certain person, perspective, and bias. Avoiding "I" cannot erase that situatedness.

  2. Using "I" can demonstrate your original contribution to a subject. Stating "I argue" is a common way to create a thesis because it explicitly tells the audience what the paper will assert.

  3. Authors can purposefully shift focus to themselves as a persuasive method.

  4. Using "I" can create strong and direct sentence structure (e.g. I analyzed the language of The New York Times.), while avoiding "I" can sometimes create cumbersome prose (e.g. The language of The New York Times article was analyzed.) 


Readings


Bing, Janet. "Killing Us Softly: Ambiguous Markers of Power and Solidarity." Cultural Performances: Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference. April 1994. 44-49.

Baecker, Diann L. “Uncovering the Rhetoric of the Syllabus: The Case of the Missing I.” College Teaching 46.2 (1998): 58-62.

Fahnestock, Jeanne. "Pronouns." Rhetorical Style: The Uses of Language in Persuasion. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. 279-91.

Mühlhäusler, Peter and Rom Harré, Pronouns and People: The Linguistic Construction of Social and Personal Identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.


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